The need to answer questions about documents has existed since the earliest days of civilisation! Documents include not only those of the familiar paper form but may include other items and materials that can bear information. Forensic document examination started with experts giving evidence on matters of disputed writings. The range of questions that may be posed to document examiners are varied and may include but are not limited to:. This range of questions requires comprehensive training on a wide range of topics. That is why the training to become a forensic document examiner requires a minimum of two years of full time training under the tutelage of a fully trained document examiner. There is no university program that enables one to commence work immediately as a document examiner. Document examination is not the practice of forensic accounting which attempts to determine the movement of money or the accounting procedures within a regulatory or legal framework.
Ink Dating is done in two primary forms. The first ink dating method is the static approach, which determines when the ink being examined was manufactured. The second ink dating method is the dynamic approach, this method is to determine when the writing occurred, or in simple terms, how long the ink has been on the paper.
These samples may come from any number of known sources, such as a particular ink manufacturer or machine. In cases involving handwriting, samples are.
Many writers, particularly those who write well and freely, are from time to time making slight but persistent changes in their handwriting. These changes are usually few in number compared with all the characteristics of the writing and do not change the general style, but often are sufficient, with adequate material for comparison, to show conclusively that a writing was made before or after a certain definite time. An interval of five years or even less, under certain health or changed business conditions, may show a number of permanent and significant changes.
Many reports has been given in this regard by Anil Gupta Forensic Services. An entirely new approach was made in a case, where date of signature on a typed letter dt. Earlier to know the age of the signature, age of document was determined by ink, paper, printing and subject matter examination. A detailed analysis of 61 signature specimens dt. The examination showed a clear variation in the signatures with due course of time as natural variations.
In this article, forensic document examiner, Mark Songer provides an overview of forensic document examination. Topics discussed include training and qualifications for forensic document examiners as well as the various methods used to exam differing projects, such as signatures, checks, computer and type generated documents, as well as obliterated writing. Forensic Document Examination FDE is a forensic science discipline in which expert examiners evaluate documents disputed in the legal system.
Questioned document examinations involve a comparison of the document, or aspects of the document, to a set of known standards i. The goal of the forensic document examiner is to systematically evaluate the attributes and characteristics of a document in order to reveal how it was prepared or how it may have been modified.
Looking for the AGE OF SIGNATURE/INK Expert Your search ends here. An entirely new approach was made in a case, where date of.
Ink, as well. Our services, and handwriting experts. In reaching a particularly challenging forensic. It tends to identify. Relative dating of documents. Crawford, and security solutions that may be undertaken utilising such as well. An expert.
In forensic science , questioned document examination QDE is the examination of documents potentially disputed in a court of law. Its primary purpose is to provide evidence about a suspicious or questionable document using scientific processes and methods. Evidence might include alterations, the chain of possession, damage to the document, forgery, origin, authenticity, or other questions that come up when a document is challenged in court.
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Examinations are conducted to determine the manner in which a document was prepared, by whom it was executed, when it was prepared and if changes have occurred since its production. Our areas of expertise cover:. A high standard of professional service is maintained using a modern and fully equipped document laboratory.
Document Examination Forensic Microscope analysis questioned documents Analysing inks, paper and other substances that are combined into Presentation of testimony as an accepted expert. The Atlas is used as an aid in typewriter comparisons by typestyle identification and dating of typewritten documents.
There are four major approaches each approach is a group of methods used for dating inks on documents:. Other ink entries are not necessary for comparison. Aginsky has developed the SET as a result of many years of research of the ink aging methodology developed and published by Dr. Antonio A. Cantu in the s. The second ink dating approach analyzes the chemical composition of inks on a contested document with the aim to determine whether these inks as well as other materials used to produce the document — paper, inkjet printing ink, toner, stamp pad ink, etc.
Such intra-comparisons of inks may reveal that the questioned entries were not written contemporaneously with the other entries in the file document. Comparison of the contested document to other similar documents from the same time frame — If other similar documents from the same source and pertinent time frame are available for comparison with the contested document, then:.
Writing ink sequencing — Examining intersections areas where two or more pen lines cross to determine the order of writing it may prove that a particular entry was added at a later time. Sequencing of indented impressions and writings — Examining intersections areas where the visible ink lines cross the indentations may determine the order of writing and thus prove that a particular entry was added at a later time. Paper folds — It is often possible to determine whether an ink line that intersects a paper fold was written before or after the paper was folded.
Offset marks — When two pieces of paper are pressed together, marks such as writing and printing may be transferred from one to another. When the writing on the reverse side of a sheet of paper in a bound ledger intersects with the writing on the front side of the sheet of paper, ink may be transferred from the front page onto an underlying page.
Someone trying to sell a baseball allegedly signed by Babe Ruth in the early s, or pass off documents as older than they really are, is up against a serious foe: The United States Secret Service. You might know that the Secret Service is on guard against counterfeit currency. You might not know, however, that it also keeps a one-of-a-kind International Ink Library with more than 11, specific writing ink fingerprints on hand.
The ink library handles a variety of cases, from threat letters — the Secret Service protects not only the President but also other high-profile government officials — and ransom letters, baseballs, and phony documents where someone is “trying to obscure the truth in some way,” says Joseph Stephens, ink library document analyst. Want to cover up insider trading by adding information to a stock worksheet after the fact?
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The scientific examination of documents has been an integral part of forensic science for almost a hundred years and many of the techniques developed over that period are still in use today. However, time does not stand still. The technology used to produce documents continues to evolve; the methods used to produce forgeries are ever more sophisticated; the expectations of lawyers and Courts are yet more demanding. But forensic science is not sitting on its hands either —advances in techniques and technology mean that the forensic document examiner is fighting back.
Document examiners are trained scientists. This means that they are trained in scientific method and objectivity, in assessing evidence and drawing conclusions. A good forensic document examiner is expected to hold a University Degree in a basic science — these individuals invest in their training. They have trained alongside forensic scientists and in established forensic science laboratories. They can demonstrate their continued education, having a record of attending meetings, producing research papers and refereeing journals.
But this technique is also able to overcome other stumbling blocks relating to the amount of ink deposited when writing and the type of paper used, as these variables hamper the dating of a document by means of traditional methods. What is more, the new technique reduces the number of punctures needed to analyse the writing on a document to just one. Determining the age of a document to find out whether it is authentic is a task influenced by the type of paper on which it has been written, the pressure of the stroke -the amount of ink deposited when the writing was done- or even the technique used.
Until now, document dating methods have been able to indicate whether the writing was relatively new less than 90 days or older over two years , yet this chronological accuracy is insufficient in certain cases, above all in judicial ones. Each document was produced at different moments using a different ink stroke pressure, factors that may alter the results and lead to dating errors.
During the natural ageing process of each sample, which had a known age, the research team analysed the evolution in the various volatile components.
Paper and ink specialists—date, type, source, and/or catalog various types of paper, watermarks, ink, printing/copy/fax machines, computer cartridges. Forgery.
To browse Academia. Skip to main content. Log In Sign Up. Download Free PDF. Questioned document and forensic examination forensic series, James Kor. Questioned document and forensic examination. Forensic science has become valuable in contemporary times due largely to the sophistication witnessed in the perpetration of crime across the world. Forensic science may be broadly defined as that scientific discipline which is directed toward recognition, identification, individualisation and evaluation of physical evidence by the application of the principles and methods of science for the purpose of administration of justice.
It is the deployment or utilization of scientific proceedures, methodology, knowledge, etc, for prosecution. Document Examination is an established field of scientific study which seeks to identify forgery and establish the authenticity of documents in dispute. It became germain for the court to be able to correctly evaluate document evidence and make sound judgement.
A document may be defined broadly as anything that bears marks, signs or symbols which have meaning or conveys a message to someone. Once the authenticity or genuineness of such document is in doubt, it becomes a questioned document, subject to examination and investigation.